Interest in newborn screening for mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) is growing, due in part to ongoing efforts to develop new therapies for these disorders and new screening assays to identify increased risk for the individual MPSs on the basis of deficiency in the cognate enzyme. Existing tests for MPSs utilize either fluorescence or mass spectrometry detection methods to measure biomarkers of disease (e.g., enzyme function or glycosaminoglycans) using either urine or dried blood spot (DBS) samples. There are currently two approaches to fluorescence-based enzyme function assays from DBS: (1) manual reaction mixing, incubation, and termination followed by detection on a microtiter plate reader; and (2) miniaturized automation of these same assay steps using digital microfluidics technology.
This article describes the origins of laboratory assays for enzyme activity measurement, the maturation and clinical application of fluorescent enzyme assays for MPS newborn screening, and considerations for future expansion of the technology.
Authors: R. Singh, S. Chopra, C. Graham, M. Langer, R. Ng, A. Ullal, V. Pamula
Diagnostics. 2020, 10, 294; doi:10.3390/diagnostics10050294